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Neutrinos have been discovered in our galaxy for the first time

Neutrinos have been discovered in our galaxy for the first time

International research team from ice Cube Can the first time High energy neutrinos Measured from our galaxy, the Milky Way. Proof achieved with the help of ten year measurements In the cubic kilometer detection system in the ice South Pole. Previously, IceCube had only recorded high-energy neutrinos from distant galaxies. Although theoretical considerations have predicted similar particle radiation from the Milky Way, no evidence has yet been found.

The signal can be found using machine learning

Only use modern methods machine learning Make the signal visible in the collected detector data. Scientists report this in the journal “Science”.

Neutrinos are shy fellows: they rarely come into contact with ordinary matter interaction. In order to detect volatile particles, large amounts of matter are required, which consist of as pure substances as possible and can interact with neutrinos.

An example of this article water – And in the ice of Antarctica it is found in large quantities in a sufficiently pure form. If a neutrino – which happens very rarely – interacts with a water molecule, then it is created Electrically charged particleswith approx The speed of light It races across the ice and emits light, the so-called Cherenkov radiation.

Huge ice cube

Researchers are looking for this light using the IceCube. The giant “Ice Cube” letter is tall one kilometer. In total 5160 optical amplifiers The physicists on the project have it up 2.5 km It is immersed in a depth of one cubic kilometer of Antarctic ice. This way, not only can they capture Cherenkov light, but they can also tell which direction it’s coming from – and thus also which direction direction of origin neutrinos

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Neutrinos play an important role in Nuclear physicsLike nuclear fusion inside the sun. But the neutrinos being searched for with the IceCube are Millions to billions of times more energy and originate in starburst And about supermassive black holes in distant galaxies.

Look for neutrinos in the Milky Way

But also in our Milky Way, high-energy neutrinos must be created by the interaction of cosmic rays with gas and dust, along with gamma rays. Gamma rays can satellite observatories prove who. However, the search for galactic neutrinos has so far been unsuccessful.

Problem: Cosmic rays are also produced in Earth’s atmosphere Neutrinos – and this noise is superimposed on the desired signal from the Milky Way. This signal emanating from the southern sky can now be detected.

Three times more sensitive search method

In order to determine the exact origin of the recorded neutrinos, a significant contribution was made by Dortmund Technical University Developed method based on machine learning. “These improved methods mean we Ten times more than neutrinos evaluation than before and with a better directional decision.” Mirko Honfeld from the Technical University of Dortmund. Overall, our analysis was nonetheless Three times more sensitive previous research methods.

IceCube data is evaluated this way for the first time image of the Milky Way, as it would appear with neutrino eyes. “This image confirms our previous knowledge of the Milky Way and cosmic rays,” Ice Cube researchers said. Steve Slipani.

But this is just the beginning. IceCube continues to collect data and methods need further improvement. “So we get an image with better and better resolution,” he explained. Dennis Caldwell From the IceCube project. In this way, scientists want to know exactly where neutrinos originate from. “Of course, we also hope to discover previously unknown and never-before-seen structures in our Milky Way.”

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